The famous Bauhaus art school opened in Weimar in 1919 and during its short lifespan it moved to Dessau and then to Berlin. The demands of the Bauhaus founders to reform art as well as the living environment and their concept of a collaboration between all fields of art and crafts has extended far beyond the historical existence of the Bauhaus from 1919 until 1933.
The architecture, art and design created by the Bauhaus movement has had a lasting effect on architecture and living space around the world and to mark its centenary in 2019 there are events and exhibitions taking place all over Germany. Last weekend I took in three very different Bauhaus experiences in Berlin and revisited the pressing questions posed one hundred years ago by members of the Bauhaus School which remain so relevant today: How do we want to live? What do we want our homes to look like? White flat-roofed buildings and steel furniture still represent the epitome of everything we associate with the term ‘Bauhaus’, but it was so much more than modernist architecture and minimal design, it was also a school for ideas and a field for experiments. A few months ago, I was given the commission of translating the text of a stunning coffee-table book entitled “Bauhaus – Eine fotografische Weltreise” by Jean Molitor and Kaija Voss (Bauhaus – A photographic journey around the world) into English.
It was fascinating work; not only did I learn a great deal about the history of the Bauhaus, but I also enjoyed studying the wealth of remarkable photographs of Bauhaus buildings all over the world, in places as far-flung as Afghanistan, India, Africa and Cuba as well as in Europe and America. Berlin photographer Jean Molitor’s photographic journey is currently the subject of a temporary exhibition at the Willy Brandy Haus in Stresemannstrasse – an especially suitable building because of its Bauhaus-style design.
There are over one hundred large-format photographs on display arranged in themes including housing, municipal buildings, industrial architecture, cinemas, church buildings, educational establishments and luxury villas. You can also read essential information about Bauhaus history and design and watch video material of Jean Molitor’s travels. Some of his adventures proved to be quite dangerous; he even was arrested in Morocco and had his camera confiscated in Russia. There are so many fascinating and unique examples of Bauhaus architecture and it was difficult to decide on which ones to include in this blog. If you want to see more and can’t get to the exhibition (it only runs until 14th March) there are images online or you could buy the book mentioned above.
My next Bauhaus destination was the Bröhan Museum in Charlottenburg where I joined a guided tour through their current exhibition entitled “From Arts and Crafts to the Bauhaus”. The Bröhan has assembled a wonderful collection of 300 items of furniture, graphic design, metal art and ceramics from over 50 years of design history.
The exhibition clearly demonstrates the pre-history of the Bauhaus and contextualises it within the Europe-wide emergence of Modernism. It shows how the English Arts and Crafts movement, the Glasgow School, Vienna Jugendstil, the Deutscher Werkbund and the Dutch group De Stijl led to the Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau. These photographs give a taste of the interesting exhibits, on display until 5th May. Entry to the Bröhan is 8 euros, but free on every first Wednesday of the month.
Of course, the home of the Bauhaus in Berlin is the Bauhaus Archiv by the Landwehr Canal near the Tiergarten. This iconic building, originally designed by Walter Gropius in 1964, is currently closed for renovation and extension. However, in the meantime you can visit the temporary Bauhaus Archiv on Knesebeckstrasse which features a model of the new building.
The temporary exhibition also includes an interesting tour through the history of the Bauhaus with photographs of its main players and the roles they played during its existence.
There is a shop selling a variety of Bauhaus design objects and I can recommend the Manufactum store next door, with its excellent bistro-style café for breakfast or lunch. For further information on Bauhaus centenary, just visit www.bauhaus100.com
The emergence of Prussia as the dominant power in the new nation of Germany had a profound effect on 20th Century Europe. This first blog of 2018 is dedicated to Theodor Fontane (1819-1898), one of my all-time favourite authors and widely recognised as Germany’s most important 19th Century realist novelist. It was in his writing that the golden age of Prussian civilisation found its greatest chronicler – and formidable critic. Fontane also loved Berlin and Berliners – with all their faults. The title image for this blog, a well-known Fontane quote, translates as: ‘Before God, all people are actually Berliners’. .
Fontane’s parents were both from French Huguenot immigrant families and he was born in the small Prussian town of Neuruppin, about 30 miles north of Berlin where his father ran a pharmacy. In 1834, Fontane moved to the capital and, having trained as a pharmacist himself, he then spent most of his working life in Berlin as a journalist, travel writer, poet and novelist. He also worked in London for three years and was a notable Anglophile. Theodor Fontane pioneered the German social novel and wrote 17 novels after the age of 60, all set in Berlin and Brandenburg. The most well-known is ‘Effi Briest’ (1894), which was translated into English in 1964 and made into a film in 1974 by Rainer Werner Fassbinder and in 2009 by Hermine Huntgeburth.
Fontane’s work depicts the lives of people across all classes in a society increasingly dominated by the militarism and materialism of Bismarck’s Second Reich. His novels are often compared to those of Thomas Hardy, Charles Dickens or Jane Austen for their poetic realism, social criticism and subtle irony. His characters are closely-observed and often revealed through their conversations, drawing the reader into a world where individuals – often women – struggle against social codes. Fontane’s travel writing is equally skilful and well ahead of its time for combining narrative adventure with literary style and historical insight. His five-volume ‘Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg’ (‘Travels in the Province of Brandenburg’), describe the landscape and the people in the countryside around Berlin. Their rich, human detail prove that it isn’t only exotic locations that can capture the imagination. And that is precisely what it so appealing about Fontane; his ability to ‘transfigure’ everyday life into something magical and universal.
Fontane’s bicentenary in the year 2019 is fast approaching. In Berlin and Brandenburg, especially his birthplace of Neuruppin, a variety of cultural projects are being planned. It will be interesting to see how many of them will be accessible to English speakers. Fontane’s work is not as well-known in the English-speaking world as on the continent and it would be wonderful if his bicentenary provides an opportunity to showcase his work to a wider public. In the meantime, I offer you a stroll through streets in the old centre of Berlin where you can still find traces of Fontane. Many of the places where he lived and worked, or which are mentioned in his literary works, no longer exist, so this walk concentrates on sites which at least bear the same name or have been restored.
Plan of the ‘Fontane walk’
From Hackescher Markt bear left into Oranienburger Straβe. After 100 metres turn right into Groβe Hamburger Straβe and walk past the old Jewish cemetery and Jewish memorial. A little further on, set back between two buildings, is the Sophienkirche, a baroque church dating back to 1712. Building number 30/30a, where Fontane moved to in 1834 to live with his Uncle August and Aunt Pinchen, was demolished in 1904/05 but was replaced by the building which still stands on the same site. Fontane described the original tenement block as “half-crumbling, ugly and ordinary, like its inhabitants”. Yet one of his neighbours included the family of his future wife, Emilie Rouanet-Kummer!
Before they were married in 1850, Emilie moved with Theodor into 33, Oranienburger Straβe, “a rather pretty house, opposite the large post yard”. From Groβe Hamburger Straβe turn left into Krausnickstraβe, then turn right into Oranienburger Straβe past the Golden Dome of the Neue Synagoge (built in 1866) and opposite the grand Imperial post office building is where Emilie used to live.
Now head towards the River Spree down Tucholsky Straβe. On your left is the imposing Bodemuseum at the end of Museum Island. Turn right along the river bank until you reach the Weidendammer Bridge with a fine view of the Berliner Ensemble theatre, whose founder Bertolt Brecht was born eight months before Fontane’s death. The Weidendammer Bridge had a special meaning for Fontane, who “had the happiest thought of his life”, when he proposed to Emilie on this bridge in 1845.
Weidammer Brücke in 1881
Turn left into Friedrichstraβe, past the station to the ‘Dorotheenstädtische Apotheke’ on the corner of Mittlestraβe. This pharmacy used to be called the ‘Polnische Apotheke’ where Fontane worked in 1845/6. The current building was erected in 1898-1902. When you reach Unter den Linden, turn left again and you will pass the ‘Staatsbibliothek’ (State Library) which in Fontane’s time used to house the Academy of Arts and Sciences. Fontane briefly worked there as Secretary in 1876, but as a free thinker, he found the job too stifling. A little further on, past the Humboldt University, is the Neue Wache, once a guardhouse and now the main war memorial in Berlin. Thirty-two years previously, in 1844, Fontane had performed guard duty here when he volunteered for one year as a Grenadier Guard.
Staatsbibliothek, Unter den Linden
Neue Wache around 1900
Diagonally opposite the Neue Wache is the newly-restored Staatsoper (State Opera House), dating back to 1741/43. Cross Bebelplatz to the right of the Staatsoper and head for Behrenstraβe, behind St Hedwigskathedrale (1747). Fontane’s great friend Mathilde von Rohr lived at 70, Behrenstraβe. Continue towards Marktgrafenstraβe and turn left into the Gendarmenmarkt with its twin churches flanking the Konzerthaus. This concert hall was originally built in 1821 as the Schauspielhaus (theatre) where Fontane was a passionate theatregoer; for 20 years, from 1870 onwards, he worked as theatre critic for the Vossische Zeitung (newspaper).
Schinkel’s Schauspielhaus in 1820
On the southern edge of Gendarmenplatz is Stadmitte underground station. Take the U2 for two stops to Potsdamer Platz and when you emerge, you will be very near the spot where Theodor Fontane lived from 1872 until 1898 and wrote most of his novels. The Fontane home was on 134, Potsdamer Straβe, about 85 metres south-west of Weinhaus Huth, the only building on this section of Potsdamer Straβe that survived the bombing and the construction of Berlin Wall. The family lived ‘three floors up’ in four rooms with a kitchen and larder. Fontane thought Potsdamer Platz was full of life and that “activity is the best thing that a city has to offer”.
Haus Huth on Potsdamer Platz
I can recommend three other fairly central ‘Fontane sites’ in Berlin. A visit to the pretty Französischer Friedhof II (French cemetery) in Liesenstraβe is a must. The great man is buried here, together with his wife Emilie. Take the U6 from Friedrichstraβe station to Schwartzkopffstraβe. Walk northwards up Chausseestraβe as far as the junction with Liesenstraβe where the cemetery is on the right-hand side. The path to Fontane’s grave is clearly signposted.
In the Tiergarten, there is a fine statue of Fontane. From Zoo station take the Number 100 bus five stops to Nordische Botschaften/Adenauer Stiftung. Walk along Stülerstraβe to Thomas-Dehler-Straβe and on the right in the park stands the ‘Fontane-Denkmal’. This statue is a copy made in the 1980s – the original stands in the entrance hall of the Märkisches Museum. A curious fact to note: the buttons on his jacket are on the wrong side.
Fontane also left his mark on Kreuzberg. In 1848, he worked as an assistant in the apothecary of the Bethanien hospital on Mariannenplatz. The historic ‘Fontane Apotheke’ is on the ground floor of this fascinating building, now an arts centre, and is open to visitors on Tuesday afternoons.
The historic Fontane Apotheke in Bethanien
Finally, there are so many traces of Fontane outside Berlin in the surrounding countryside of Brandenburg, one of the German Federal States that was locked inside the German Democratic Republic for 40 years, from 1949 to 1989. The towns and villages have now been sensitively restored and are being rediscovered by 21st Century visitors. It is well worth making a day trip to Fontane’s beautiful home town of Neuruppin, often referred to as ‘Fontanestadt’, with its well-ordered Prussian streets and stunning lake.
Aerial view of Neuruppin
And a few days in the Spreewald, about an hour south of Berlin, is a revelation. This historic area of wetlands and pine forests is criss-crossed by over 200 small canals called ‘Flieβe’. Many of the inhabitants are descendants of the first settlers of the Spreewald region, the Slavic tribes of the Sorbs or ‘Wends’. In some villages, they have preserved many of their customs, as well as their language and traditional clothing. In 1991, the Spreewald, so wonderfully documented in Fontane’s travel writing, was designated a biosphere reserve by UNESCO.
Barge trip through the Spreewald
One of many famous Fontane quotes is: “Das ist ein weites Feld” (from ‘Effi Briest’). It translates into English as, “that is a broad subject”, and suggests that something is far too complicated to discuss in brief. Gunter Grass used it to excellent effect for the title of his 1995 novel set in Berlin between the fall of the Berlin Wall and reunification. This blog has only scratched the surface of Theodor Fontane and his Berlin/Brandenburg connections. If you are interested in learning more, I have listed a couple of websites below. And to finish, here is another favourite Fontane quotes, translated into English:
The Joseph-Roth-Diele is always perfect for a weekday lunch or dinner. With its stone-tiled floor, dark wood panelling and old-fashioned furniture you would think this café bar was a pre-war Berlin haunt. But this is new nostalgia. It only opened in 2002 and is dedicated to the Jewish-Austrian journalist and author Joseph Roth, who lived in the building next door in the ‘Golden’ 1920s.There are shelves stacked with his books and the walls are decorated with photographs of Roth and quotes from his writings. Red and brown tones recreate the warmth and cosiness of a Viennese coffee-house, slowing life down to a literary pace. The word ‘Diele’ means parlour, a homely place to be among friends, have something good to eat and drink and pass the time agreeably. A perfect description.
There has been an upsurge of sympathetic interest in Germany in the British media over the past few months. Cynics might put this down to Germany’s high profile in the World Cup but it could also be a generational shift. As the two World Wars recede further into the past there is a greater willingness to view German history and culture in a more objective way. In the current series on Radio 4 ‘Germany – Memories of a Nation’, Neil MacGregor, Director of the British Museum, acknowledges the profound influence Germany has had across Europe over the past six centuries. He tells its “patchwork history” by selecting various buildings and objects and the first ten episodes have been gripping. There are another 20 episodes to go and each lasts just over 14 minutes. They are broadcast twice daily from Monday to Friday and also available as podcasts. I am hooked – and have already booked tickets for the exhibition which opens at the British Museum next week.(more…)
Berlin is now a city where everything seems possible and yet its past is barely credible. ‘Imagine a City’ by Rory Maclean is a biography of Berlin told through the lives of 23 Berliners. It is a combination of fact and fiction, a roller-coaster ride that captures all the horror, the resilience and the fascination of Berlin. The title of the book refers to the words used by Hitler’s architect Albert Speer to describe his vision of ‘Germania’, the future capital of the Third Reich. ‘Imagine a city. Imagine a capital greater than Paris and Rome, a metropolis that will eclipse Babylon and Karnak’. Speer’s plans were never realised but Berlin continues to capture the imagination. It is a city continually trying out new ideas, a city with terrible skeletons in its cupboard and a reputation for opportunity and for unadulterated pleasure.(more…)